1. Optical module -core device of optical fiber communication system
The light module is one of the core devices of the optical fiber communication system. It is a collective name of multiple module categories, including: optical receiving module, optical send module, optical sending module, and light forwarding module. In the current market, the optical module generally refers to the light and receiving integrated module.
Under normal circumstances, the optical module consists of the optical emission device (TOSA, laser), light receiving device (ROSA, light detector), driving circuit, amplifier, and light (electricity) interface.
Internal structure of light module
The light module is mainly used to realize the conversion of electric-light and light-electrical signals, as shown in the figure below:
Optical conversion diagram of optoelectronic module
Image source: Yidu Data
1. At the transmitting end, a certain rate of the telecommunications signal is processed by the drive circuit and enters the optical emission device;
2. The processing of the electrical signal drive laser emit the corresponding rate of the modulation light signal with the corresponding rate, automatically control the circuit through the optical power to output a stable light signal;
3. At the receiving end, the light signal of a certain rate is transformed from the light detector to the electrical signal;
4. The telegraph signal with the electrical telegram outputs the corresponding power signal after the amplifier is amplifier.
According to different communication scenarios, the optical module market can be divided into segmented market segments such as Ethernet, connectors, transmission, Fibre Channel, wireless access, and wired access.
Among them, the Ethernet optical module is mainly used for digital network devices such as servers, switches, routers, etc.; optical connectors are both AOC (Active Optical Cables) and are used for short -distance connections from the server to the TOR switch; CWDM/DWDM optical light The module is mainly used for various types of optical transmission equipment; the Fibre Channel light module is dedicated to storage and high -performance computing networks. The main customers of these four segments include cloud computing manufacturers, Internet manufacturers and telecommunications operators.
Wireless access optical modules and wired access optical modules correspond to the wireless network access network and cable broadband access network, which is a market segment of telecommunications operators.
Light module application scenario and market segment market
Picture source: Guolian Securities
In 2020, the two segments of Ethernet and CWDM/DWDM were as high as 77%. Among them, the Ethernet light module and the optical connector (a pair of Ethernet light modules in the direct connection) contribute 53%of the market share for 34%of shipments. CWDM/DWDM light model contributes 24%of the market share for about 1%.In 2020, the cable -connected light module market contributed 7%of the market share with 43%of shipments, and the wireless access market contributed a market share of 14%of the shipments of 20%. Benefiting from the growth of data communication traffic, Ethernet and CWDM/DWDM light modules continuously iterate from 100G to 200G, 400G, and 800G, becoming the main driving force for the growth of the light module market.
2. Data communication demand has soarly drove the tens of billions of US dollars light module market
According to statistics from LightCounting, a professional data company in the global optical module industry, the global optical module market has resumed growth in 2019 after three consecutive years of stagnation in 2016-2018, and the global light module market in 2020 reached $ 8.1 billion. LightCounting predicts that the global light module market size in 2026 was 17.6 billion US dollars, and the compound annual growth rate from 2021-2026 was 13.68%. Among them, 2022-2024 The global light module market size was 107.65/119.56/13.262 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 16.09%/11.06%/10.92%.
According to the statistics of the French market research and consulting agency, the overall scale of the global optical module market in 2020 reached 9.6 billion US dollars, an increase of nearly 25%over US $ 7.7 billion in 2019. Yole expects that the overall scale of the global optical module market will increase from US $ 9.6 billion in 2020 to US $ 20.9 billion in 2026, and the compound annual growth rate from 2021-2026 is 14%. Among them, the proportion of data communication markets will increase from 55.2%to 77.2%in 2026, and the compound annual growth rate of 2021-2026 will be 19%, becoming the main driving force for the growth of the light module market.
2020-2026 Light Module Market Forecast
Third, the light module competition is fierce, and the share of domestic manufacturers continues to rise
The upstream of the light module industry mainly includes optical chips, battery chips, and optical components. There are many suppliers in the optical component industry, but high -end optical chips and battery chips have high barriers to technology and high R & D costs. They are mainly monopolized by overseas companies. The light module industry is located in the middle reaches of the industrial chain, and it belongs to the packaging link with relatively low technical barriers. The downstream of the optical module industry includes the Internet and cloud computing companies, telecommunications operators, data communication and optical communication equipment vendors. Among them, the Internet and cloud computing companies and telecommunications operators are the end users of the light module.
The key technologies of upstream high -end optical chips are monopolized by a few foreign manufacturers. The market concentration in the downstream industry is high, and the bargaining ability of head enterprises is very strong. The light module industry is under the pressure of upstream and downstream, the bargaining ability is relatively weak, and the industry is competitive. It is necessary to establish a relatively stable upstream and downstream cooperation relationship through scale advantages, technical iterative and reliable delivery capabilities.
The list of top ten light module manufacturers released by OMDIA and its market share changes in 2021 show that the top ten are: Gaoyi Group, Middle Xuchuang, Lang Meitong, Guangxun Technology, Hisense Broadband Multimedia, Multimedia, Hisense Broadband Multimedia, Hisense Broadband Multimedia, Hisense Broadband Multimedia, Hisense Broadband Multimedia. ACACIA, One Group, Sumitomo Electric, Intel. Facially shortlisted manufacturers include Middle Xu Chuang, Guangxun Technology, Hisense Broadband Multimedia, and Eunnar Group. In 2021, the market share has increased to varying degrees. The top four domestic optical module manufacturers account for 26%of the world's market share.
Among the top ten manufacturers, the market share of Middle School Xu Chuang increased the largest market share in 2021. It currently accounts for 10%of the market share. According to Zhongji Xuchuang, the sales volume of 200G and 400G products provided by the company's data center in 2021 increased significantly, and the market share in the fourth quarter was as high as 12%.
Guangxun Technology currently accounts for nearly 8%of the market share. In 2021, Guangxun Technology transmitted products and access and data product revenue of 6.449 billion yuan.
Fourth, the development trend of the light module industry
At present, the competition in the optical communication market is becoming more and more intense, the volume of the requirements for communication equipment is getting smaller and smaller, and the interface density contains the interface board is getting higher and higher. The light module of traditional laser and detectors is difficult to meet the requirements of modern communication equipment. In order to meet the requirements of communication devices for optical devices, the light module is developing highly integrated small packaging development. Highly integrated photoelectric modules make users not need to process high -speed simulation photoelectric signals, shorten the R & D and production cycle, reduce the types of complicated gas procurement, and reduce production costs. Therefore, it is also favored by equipment manufacturers.
2. Low cost, low power consumption
The volume of the communication equipment is getting smaller and smaller, and the interface density contains the interface board is getting higher and higher, and it is required that the optoelectronic devices are required to develop in the direction of low cost and low power consumption. At present, the optical devices generally use hybrid integration processes and gas packaging processes. The next development will be a non-gas packaging. It needs to rely on technologies such as passive optical coupling (adjustment of non-X-Y-Z direction) to further increase the degree of automation production and reduce costs.
3. High speed
People have more and more information requirements, and the requirements for information transmission rates are getting faster and faster. As a modern information exchange, processing, and transmission of major pillars, Optical Sailing Network has been continuously developing to ultra -high frequency, ultra -high and large capacity development, transmission transmission, transmission, and transmission. The higher the speed and the larger the capacity, the cost of transmitting each information is getting smaller and smaller.
4. Long distance
Today's optical network laiding is getting farther and farther, which requires the remote transceiver to match it. The typical long -range transceiver signal can be transmitted at least 100 kilometers under unpredable conditions. The purpose is to save expensive optical releases and reduce the cost of light communication. Based on the consideration of the transmission distance, many remote transceiver chose 1550 bands (the wavelength range is about 1530 to 1565nm) as the working band, because the light waves have the least losses during the transmission of this range, and the available lithography players work in this way. Band.
5. Hot insertion
That is, no need to cut off the power, the module can be connected or disconnected with the device. Because the light module is hot -inserted, the network manager can upgrade and expand the system without turning off the network, which will not affect online users.The heat insertion also simplifies the overall maintenance work and enables end users to better manage their receiving modules.At the same time, due to this thermal exchange performance, the module allows network managers to upgrade the transceiver cost, link distance and all network topology according to the network upgrade requirements, and no need to replace the system board.